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Roughly: My family's own person is weakly not feeling refreshed. However, the language still retained a final -m , which has merged with -n in modern dialects, and initial voiced fricatives. Existential have strategies appear in 9 "they have two different type," 13 "we used to have all things," and in the following: Fn3 12 That's what holding up people from buy, say too expensive. Bot doz tingz ar ogli. In Mandarin-speaking areas such as Sichuan and Chongqing , the local dialect is the native tongue of most of the population. These final stops have disappeared in most Mandarin dialects, with the syllables distributed over the other four modern tones in different ways in the various Mandarin subgroups.
However, the rate of change in mutual intelligibility varies immensely depending on region. For example, the varieties of Mandarin spoken in all three northeastern Chinese provinces are mutually intelligible, but in the province of Fujian , where Min varieties predominate, the speech of neighbouring counties or even villages may be mutually unintelligible. Proportions of first-language speakers . Classifications of Chinese varieties in the late 19th century and early 20th century were based on impressionistic criteria. They often followed river systems, which were historically the main routes of migration and communication in southern China.
The Language Atlas of China follows a classification of Li Rong , distinguishing three further groups:  . Some varieties remain unclassified, including the Danzhou dialect of northwestern Hainan , Waxiang , spoken in a small strip of land in western Hunan , and Shaozhou Tuhua , spoken in the border regions of Guangdong, Hunan, and Guangxi. Most of the vocabulary of the Bai language of Yunnan appears to be related to Chinese words, though many are clearly loans from the last few centuries.
Some scholars have suggested that it represents a very early branching from Chinese, while others argue that it is a more distantly related Sino-Tibetan language overlaid with two millennia of loans.
Scholars account for the transitional nature of the central varieties in terms of wave models. Iwata argues that innovations have been transmitted from the north across the Huai River to the Lower Yangtze Mandarin area and from there southeast to the Wu area and westwards along the Yangtze River valley and thence to southwestern areas, leaving the hills of the southeast largely untouched. A study compared fifteen major urban dialects on the objective criteria of lexical similarity and regularity of sound correspondences, and subjective criteria of intelligibility and similarity.
The exception was phonological regularity, where the one Gan dialect Nanchang Gan was in the Southern group and very close to Meixian Hakka , and the deepest phonological difference was between Wenzhounese the southernmost Wu dialect and all other dialects. The study did not find clear splits within the Northern and Central areas: . In the Southern subgroup, Hakka and Yue grouped closely together on the three lexical and subjective measures but not in phonological regularity.
The Min dialects showed high divergence, with Min Fuzhou Eastern Min grouped only weakly with the Southern Min dialects of Xiamen and Chaozhou on the two objective criteria and was actually slightly closer to Hakka and Yue on the subjective criteria. Local varieties from different areas of China are often mutually unintelligible, differing at least as much as different Romance languages and perhaps even as much as Indo-European languages as a whole.
Linguists writing in Chinese often qualify the term to distinguish different levels of classification. All these terms have customarily been translated into English as dialect , a practice that has been criticized as confusing. The only varieties usually recognized as languages in their own right are Dungan and Taz. Dungan is in fact a variety of Mandarin, with high although asymmetric mutual intelligibility with Standard Mandarin. Various mixed languages , particularly those spoken by ethnic minorities, are also referred to as languages such as Tangwang language and E language.
Some people and institutions may also allude to Taiwanese language , Cantonese language , and Hakka languages. The usual unit of analysis is the syllable, traditionally analysed as consisting of an initial consonant , a final and a tone.
In the 42 varieties surveyed in the Great Dictionary of Modern Chinese Dialects , the number of initials including a zero initial ranges from 15 in some southern dialects to a high of 35 in the dialect of Chongming Island , Shanghai. The initial system of the Fuzhou dialect of northern Fujian is a minimal example.
However, most varieties have additional initials, due to a combination of innovations and retention of distinctions from Middle Chinese:. Chinese finals may be analysed as an optional medial glide , a main vowel and an optional coda.
All varieties of Chinese, like neighbouring languages in the Mainland Southeast Asia linguistic area , have phonemic tones. Each syllable may be pronounced with between three and seven distinct pitch contours, denoting different morphemes. The number of tonal contrasts varies between dialects, with Northern dialects tending to have fewer distinctions than Southern ones. The tonal categories of modern varieties can be related by considering their derivation from the four tones of Middle Chinese , though cognate tonal categories in different dialects are often realized as quite different pitch contours.
The tones of Middle Chinese, as well as similar systems in neighbouring languages, experienced a tone split conditioned by syllabic onsets. When voicing was lost in all dialects except the Wu and Old Xiang groups, this distinction became phonemic, yielding eight tonal categories, with a six-way contrast in unchecked syllables and a two-way contrast in checked syllables.
Cantonese maintains these tones and has developed an additional distinction in checked syllables as well as one in unchecked syllables. The latter distinction has disappeared again in many varieties.
Creole and Dialect Continua. Standard acquisition processes in Belize and China (PRC). Geneviève Escure. | University of Minnesota. Hardbound – Available. Creole and Dialect Continua: Standard acquisition processes in Belize and China (PRC) (Creole Language Library) [Geneviève Escure] on uxetyzan.tk
However, most Chinese varieties have reduced the number of tonal distinctions. For example, in Mandarin, the tones resulting from the split of Middle Chinese rising and departing tones merged, leaving four tones. Furthermore, final stop consonants disappeared in most Mandarin dialects, and such syllables were distributed amongst the four remaining tones, seemingly at random.
In Wu, voiced obstruents were retained, and the tone split never became phonemic: the higher-pitched allophones occur with initial voiceless consonants, and the lower-pitched allophones occur with initial voiced consonants. Most Wu dialects retain the tone categories of Middle Chinese, but in Shanghainese several of these have merged. Many Chinese varieties exhibit tone sandhi , in which the realization of a tone varies depending on the context of the syllable. For example, in Standard Chinese a third tone changes to a second tone when followed by another third tone.
Most morphemes in Chinese varieties are monosyllables descended from Old Chinese words, and have cognates in all varieties:. First- and second-person pronouns are cognate across all varieties. For third-person pronouns, Jin, Mandarin, and Xiang varieties have cognate forms, but other varieties generally use forms that originally had a velar or glottal initial: .
Southern varieties also include distinctive substrata of vocabulary of non-Chinese origin.
Some of these words may have come from Tai—Kadai and Austroasiatic languages. The Min languages are often regarded as furthest removed linguistically from Standard Chinese in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary. Historically, the Min languages were the first to diverge from the rest of the Chinese languages see the discussion of historical Chinese phonology for more details.
The Min languages are also the group with the greatest amount of internal diversity and are often regarded as consisting of at least five separate languages, e. To illustrate, in Taiwanese a variety of Hokkien , a Min language to express the idea that one is feeling a little ill "I am not feeling well. Roughly: My family's own person is weakly not feeling refreshed.
In southern China not including Hong Kong and Macau , where the difference between Standard Chinese and local dialects is particularly pronounced, well-educated Chinese are generally fluent in Standard Chinese, and most people have at least a good passive knowledge of it, in addition to being native speakers of the local dialect. The choice of dialect varies based on the social situation. Standard Chinese is usually considered more formal and is required when speaking to a person who does not understand the local dialect.
The local dialect be it non-Standard Chinese or non-Mandarin altogether is generally considered more intimate and is used among close family members and friends and in everyday conversation within the local area. Chinese speakers will frequently code switch between Standard Chinese and the local dialect.
Parents will generally speak to their children in dialect, and the relationship between dialect and Mandarin appears to be mostly stable; even a diglossia. Local dialects are valued as symbols of regional cultures. People generally are tied to the hometown and therefore the hometown dialect, instead of a broad linguistic classification. For example, a person from Wuxi may claim that he speaks Wuxi dialect, even though it is similar to Shanghainese another Wu dialect.
Likewise, a person from Xiaogan may claim that he speaks Xiaogan dialect. Linguistically, Xiaogan dialect is a dialect of Mandarin, but the pronunciation and diction are quite different from spoken Standard Chinese. Knowing the local dialect is of considerable social benefit, and most Chinese who permanently move to a new area will attempt to pick up the local dialect. Paquette ,The lesser Antilles in the age of European expansion.
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