We included 14 trials reporting on a total of patients undergoing rectal cancer surgery. In The estimated effect was imprecise and further research could impact on our confidence int this result. There is moderate quality evidence that it leads to better short-term post-surgical outcomes in terms of length of hospital stay. We found that pain was lower in the LTME group and that resumption of diet was better. We did not find clear evidence of a difference in quality of life between the two groups, but costs were higher for LTME.
We await long-term data from a number of ongoing and recently completed studies to contribute to our understanding of the effects of these surgical approaches on long-term disease free, overall survival and local recurrence. We have found moderate quality evidence that laparoscopic total mesorectal excision TME has similar effects to open TME on long term survival outcomes for the treatment of rectal cancer. The quality of the evidence was downgraded due to imprecision and further research could impact on our confidence in this result.
There is moderate quality evidence that it leads to better short-term post-surgical outcomes in terms of recovery for non-locally advanced rectal cancer. Currently results are consistent in showing a similar disease-free survival and overall survival, and for recurrences after at least three years and up to 10 years, although due to imprecision we cannot rule out superiority of either approach.
We await long-term data from a number of ongoing and recently completed studies to contribute to a more robust analysis of long-term disease free, overall survival and local recurrence. Colorectal cancer including rectal cancer is the third most common cause of cancer deaths in the western world.
For colon carcinoma, laparoscopic surgery is proven to result in faster postoperative recovery, fewer complications and better cosmetic results with equal oncologic results. These short-term benefits are expected to be similar for laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery. During open surgery, the surgeon makes a large cut into the abdomen to remove the tumor and part of the healthy colon or rectum. Some nearby lymph nodes are also removed. The surgeon will check the rest of the intestines and liver to see if the cancer has spread. The large incisions affect recovery time.
Separate from the method by which a surgeon completes a procedure, there are many types of operations. The specific type of surgery is determined by the location of the disease. Four common types are right hemicolectomy, sigmoid colectomy, left hemicolectomy, and lower anterior resection LAR. The surgeon removes the ascending colon and a portion of the transverse colon and then connects the transverse colon to the end of the small intestine.
Most patients gain bowel function within 3 days after surgery. Patients who had a right hemicolectomy surgery may experience a slower return of bowel function which will cause a longer stay at the hospital. The surgeon removes the diseased portion of the sigmoid colon and then connects the descending colon to the rectum.
The surgeon removes a portion of the transverse colon, the descending colon, and the sigmoid colon and then connects the transverse colon to the rectum.
With this surgery, patients may have an increased risk of infections at the site of surgery. Surgeons are more likely to create a temporary ostomy in patients who had left hemicolectomy, which may extend their stay at the hospital. The surgeon removes the diseased portion of the rectum and then reconnects it to the descending colon. With this type of surgery patients are at higher risk of a leak from the site of reattachment of the health ends of the rectum anastomotic leak and fecal incontinence.
To reduce the risk, your surgeon may create a temporary ostomy to divert fecal matter away from the newly created anastomosis. Rectal cancer patients are also at increased risk of developing LARS syndrome a collection of symptoms ranging from incontinence with frequency and urgency to constipation and incomplete emptying following their surgery. Patients who had a lower anterior resection are more likely to suffer from sexual dysfunction.
Patients are encouraged to discuss surgical options with their medical teams, along with details about surgery preparation and recovery. Surgery must be conducted on a clean and empty colon, which is achieved through preparation like the one used before a colonoscopy. In , the FDA approved bevacizumab along with chemotherapy as the first treatment, or first-line treatment, for advanced colorectal cancer. Recent studies have shown it is also effective as second-line therapy along with chemotherapy. There are 2 drugs similar to bevacizumab, bevacizumab-awwb Mvasi and bevacizumab-bvzr Zirabev , that have also been approved by the FDA to treat advanced colorectal cancer.
These are called biosimilars. Regorafenib Stivarga. This drug is used to treat people with metastatic colorectal cancer who have already received certain types of chemotherapy and other targeted therapies. Ziv-aflibercept Zaltrap and ramucirumab Cyramza. Epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR inhibitors. Researchers have found that drugs that block EGFR may be effective for stopping or slowing the growth of colorectal cancer. Cetuximab Erbitux. Cetuximab is an antibody made from mouse cells that still has some of the mouse structure.
Panitumumab Vectibix. Panitumumab is made entirely from human proteins and is less likely to cause an allergic reaction than cetuximab. Recent studies show that cetuximab and panitumumab do not work as well for tumors that have specific mutations, or changes, to a gene called RAS. Furthermore, the FDA now recommends that both cetuximab and panitumumab only be given to people with a tumor with non-mutated, sometimes called wild-type, RAS genes.
Tumor-agnostic treatment. Larotrectinib Vitrakvi is a type of targeted therapy that is not specific to a certain type of cancer but focuses on a specific genetic change called an NTRK fusion.
This type of genetic change is found in a range of cancers, including colorectal cancer. It is approved as a treatment for colorectal cancer that is metastatic or cannot be removed with surgery and has worsened with other treatments. These markers do not have FDA-approved targeted therapies yet, but there may be opportunities in clinical trials that are studying these molecular changes. Talk with your doctor about possible side effects for a specific medication and how they can be managed. The side effects of targeted treatments can include a rash to the face and upper body, which can be prevented or reduced with various treatments.
Find out more about skin reactions to targeted therapies. Immunotherapy, also called biologic therapy, is designed to boost the body's natural defenses to fight the cancer. It uses materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function. Pembrolizumab Keytruda. Pembrolizumab targets PD-1, a receptor on tumor cells, preventing the tumor cells from hiding from the immune system. Pembrolizumab is used to treat metastatic colorectal cancers that have a molecular feature called microsatellite instability MSI-H or mismatch repair deficiency dMMR.
Nivolumab Opdivo. Nivolumab is used to treat people who are 12 or older and have MSI-H or dMMR metastatic colorectal cancer that has grown or spread after treatment with chemotherapy with a fluoropyrimidine such as capecitabine and fluorouracil , oxaliplatin, and irinotecan. Nivolumab and ipilimumab Yervoy combination. This combination of checkpoint inhibitors received FDA approval in July It is approved to treat patients who are 12 or older and have MSI-H or dMMR metastatic colorectal cancer that has grown or spread after treatment with chemotherapy with a fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan.
Different types of immunotherapy can cause different side effects. The most common side effects of immunotherapy may include fatigue, rash, diarrhea, nausea, fever, muscle pain, bone pain, joint pain, abdominal pain, itching, vomiting, cough, decreased appetite, and shortness of breath.
Methods. A retrospective analysis of colorectal patients who underwent laparoscopic colorectal surgery for colorectal adenocarcinoma. In this article, short- and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery for cancer are reviewed. In addition, different technical.
Talk with your doctor about possible side effects for the immunotherapy recommended for you. Cancer and its treatment often cause side effects. This approach is called palliative or supportive care, and it includes supporting the patient with his or her physical, emotional, and social needs. Palliative care is any treatment that focuses on reducing symptoms, improving quality of life, and supporting patients and their families.
Any person, regardless of age or type and stage of cancer, may receive palliative care. It works best when palliative care is started as early as needed in the cancer treatment process. People often receive treatment for the cancer at the same time that they receive treatment to ease side effects. In fact, people who receive both at the same time often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and report they are more satisfied with treatment.
Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional support, and other therapies. You may also receive palliative treatments similar to those meant to eliminate the cancer, such as chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy.
Talk with your doctor about the goals of each treatment in the treatment plan. Before treatment begins, talk with your health care team about the possible side effects of the specific treatment plan and palliative care options. During and after treatment, be sure to tell your doctor or another health care team member if you are experiencing a problem so it can be addressed as quickly as possible.
Learn more about palliative care. However, many patients with stage III colorectal cancer, and some with stage II, receive chemotherapy after surgery to increase the chance of eliminating the disease. Patients with stage II and III rectal cancer will also receive radiation therapy with chemotherapy either before or after surgery. Stage IV is not often curable, but it is treatable, and the growth of the cancer and the symptoms of the disease can be managed.
Clinical trials are also a treatment option for each stage. The usual treatment is a polypectomy, or removal of a polyp, during a colonoscopy. There is no additional surgery unless the polyp cannot be fully removed.
Surgery is often the first treatment. People with stage II colorectal cancer should talk with their doctor about whether more treatment is needed after surgery because some people receive adjuvant chemotherapy.
Adjuvant chemotherapy is treatment after surgery aimed at trying to destroy any remaining cancer cells. However, cure rates for surgery alone are quite good, and there are few benefits of additional treatment for people with this stage of colorectal cancer. Learn more about adjuvant therapy for stage II colorectal cancer. A clinical trial is also an option after surgery. For stage II rectal cancer, radiation therapy is usually given in combination with chemotherapy, either before or after surgery. Additional chemotherapy may be given after surgery as well.
Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor followed by adjuvant chemotherapy. A clinical trial may also an option. For rectal cancer, radiation therapy may be used with chemotherapy before or after surgery, along with adjuvant chemotherapy. If cancer spreads to another part in the body from where it started, doctors call it metastatic cancer. If this happens, it is a good idea to talk with doctors who have experience treating this stage of cancer. Doctors can have different opinions about the best standard treatment plan.
Clinical trials might also be an option. Learn more about getting a second opinion before starting treatment, so you are comfortable with your chosen treatment plan. Your treatment plan may include a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy, which can be used to slow the spread of the disease and often temporarily shrink a cancerous tumor.
Palliative care will also be important to help relieve symptoms and side effects. At this stage, surgery to remove the portion of the colon where the cancer started usually cannot cure the cancer, but it can help relieve blockage of the colon or other problems related to the cancer. Surgery may also be used to remove parts of other organs that contain cancer, called resection, and can cure some people if a limited amount of cancer spreads to a single organ, such as the liver or a lung. In colorectal cancer, if the cancer has spread only to the liver and if surgery is possible—either before or after chemotherapy—there is a chance of complete cure.
Determining who can benefit from surgery for cancer that has spread to the liver is often a complicated process that involves multiple doctors with different specialties working together to plan the best treatment option. For most people, a diagnosis of metastatic cancer is very stressful and, at times, difficult to bear. You and your family are encouraged to talk about how you feel with doctors, nurses, social workers, or other members of the health care team. It may also be helpful to talk with other patients, including through a support group.
A remission is when cancer cannot be detected in the body and there are no symptoms. A remission may be temporary or permanent.
This uncertainty causes many people to worry that the cancer will come back. While many remissions are permanent, it is important to talk with your doctor about the possibility of the cancer returning. Understanding your risk of recurrence and the treatment options may help you feel more prepared if the cancer does return. Learn more about coping with the fear of recurrence. If the cancer does return after the original treatment, it is called recurrent cancer. It may come back in the same place called a local recurrence , nearby regional recurrence , or in another place distant recurrence.
When this occurs, a new cycle of testing will begin again to learn as much as possible about the recurrence. After this testing is done, you and your doctor will talk about the treatment options. Often the treatment plan will include the treatments described above, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy, but they may be used in a different combination or given at a different pace.
Your doctor may suggest clinical trials that are studying new ways to treat this type of recurrent cancer. Generally, the treatment options for recurrent cancer are the same as those for metastatic cancer see above and include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Whichever treatment plan you choose, palliative care will be important for relieving symptoms and side effects.
People with recurrent cancer often experience emotions such as disbelief or fear.