Latinization of America: How Hispanics Are Changing the Nations Sights and Sounds

LATINIZATION OF AMERICA: How Hispanics are Changing the Nation's Sites and Sounds
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Michigan Publishing University of Michigan Press. Description Although investigations of Hispanic popular culture were approached for decades as part of folklore studies, in recent years scholarly explorations—of lucha libre, telenovelas, comic strips, comedy, baseball, the novela rosa and the detective novel, sci-fi, even advertising—have multiplied.

Look Inside Table of Contents. Aesthetics of Discomfort. Pivotal Voices, Era of Transition. Chicano Novels and the Politics of Form. Performing Queer Latinidad. Louis University. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more. If you have previously obtained access with your personal account, Please log in. If you previously purchased this article, Log in to Readcube.

Log out of Readcube. Click on an option below to access. Log out of ReadCube. Hispanics represent an important consumer segment in the North American market, but research in the area of U. Hispanic advertising remains limited. The authors develop a scheme for content analyzing cultural values based on cultural theory literature.

Results show meaningful differences in the core cultural values emphasized to target U. Hispanic consumers. The study has implications for marketers and academics who want to differentiate between culturally adapted advertising appeals for U. The coding scheme developed in this study can help marketers identify and depict Hispanic cultural value appeals in their marketing communications.

Volume 51 , Issue 2. The full text of this article hosted at iucr. Notice the miniature market in the bottom left-hand corner.

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At first, they had an integrated parish council but it did not work effectively. By , the midtown barrio of Tulsa was thirty-five percent Hispanic. According to St. Then, priests conducted three Spanish Masses and one English- language Mass on weekends. Furthermore, several Anglo members decided they wanted to learn Spanish Gillham f. Today, the priests celebrate seven Masses in Spanish and still only one Mass in English Sherman Thomas More Catholic Church.

Parish- ioners attended the first Mass there in ; at the time there were no Spanish- language Masses. Fifteen years later, parish dynamics began to change and the church responded to those changes. In the early s, the priest began cele- brating a Spanish Mass once a month; that became once a week in September Presently there are five Spanish-language Masses each week St.

Thom- as More Three of the top ten churches in Tulsa in were Catholic. Thomas More in east Tulsa and St. Francis Xavier in midtown Tulsa Sherman Hispanic Leaders in Tulsa Hispanic Catholic churches were more than just gathering places for Lati- nos; these institutions provide valuable charitable services, especially with problems that arise from the language barrier. Also over the years, however, Latinos have relied on various leaders for guidance and on various local sup- port organizations to help ease social and cultural problems.


These influential community members are a vital component of facilitating a Latinized comfort zone in Tulsa. Orta, not really wanting to move away from Texas, felt in his heart that Latinos in Tulsa de- served an option other than Catholicism. This com- mission watched for and thwarted barriers to employment, housing, and health services and unfair treatment from law enforcement.

The Politics, Economics, and Culture of Mexican-U.S. Migration

The most important goal of the organization, however, was to portray a correct image of and create an awareness of Latinos in Tulsa. To combat this image, leaders like Orta encouraged the first Latino celebration in downtown Tulsa in The gala had the backing of city officials—former mayor James Inhofe even spoke at the event—but there were no funds to support the gala. As a result, the community came together and raised enough money to bring in a dance group from Guadalajara and a mariachi band.

Another influential leader is Yolanda Velarde-Charney, a second genera- tion Mexican-American, who moved to Owasso a suburb fifteen miles north- east of Tulsa over fifty years ago. She said that when she arrived one of the main cultural connections for the Mexican community was the El Rancho Grande restaurant. In , Velarde-Charney left that group and with Dr. Julio Cuadra, Dr. During the late s, Velarde-Charney aided Reinoso and Ben Windham in creating a resource center in the Martin East Regional Library in east Tulsa that would promote and assist lifelong learning for Hispanics in Tulsa.

Currently retired but still an active voice in the Latino community, Velarde-Charney clearly saw a need and came forward to work with others to provide support in a variety of ways. Margarita Trevino moved from Chihuahua, Mexico, to Tulsa in the s. Like his wife, Francisco had also struggled with language.

What's the difference between Latino and Hispanic?

When he moved to Tulsa in , he did not know any English. Francisco stated that, at the time, he knew only a few other Mexicans in town and that most of his friends were Black, Indian, or Anglo. When he was twenty years old, he moved back to Mexico for six months; when he returned to Tulsa, he began mingling with the Hispanic community and met Margarita when he was volun- teering at a Spanish immersion class Trevino and Trevino Together, the Trevinos became more active in the Tulsa Latino communi- ty, lending a hand and strengthening the comfort zone by organizing and par- ticipating in community activities that helped preserve Latino culture.

Margari- ta participated in a dance group—National Association of Folkloric Dance— from to Francisco joined the Tulsa Mariachi band.

Both the dance group and the band helped spread Hispanic culture through the city and helped unite this new Hispanic community Trevino and Trevino As an active member in the Latino community, Francisco made other con- nections. During his days with the band, he met David Zapata, the owner of Zapata Media Group—a company that aired a two-hours-long Spanish radio show and published the newspaper Hispano de Tulsa.

At the time, these were the only mainstream media dedicated specifically to Tulsa Hispanics. In , Zapata had to leave his business and offered Francisco the radio program or the newspaper. Francisco decided to keep the newspaper. During the intense population growth of the s, leaders and organiza- tions stepped up to meet the demands. Church- es continued to be a primary source for social services, such as providing infor- mation on laws and jobs, English lessons, and medical assistance Gillham c. Furthermore, the men and women who started these businesses were also leaders in this new community; their stories are important and representa- tive of their perseverance and success.

As a result of these hard-to-miss new enterprises and entrepreneurs, Tulsans grew increasingly cognizant of the fact that Latinos lived and worked in their city and that the process of Latinization was in full swing. Guadalupe, who became known as Ruby Rodrigues, had left school after the second grade. Another Latino-owned restaurant, Casa Monterrey, opened in the late s in southwest Tulsa.

S in the s, paying a cents fee at the border. They made their way to Hickory Coal Mine Camp located in east midtown and lived in a tent until they were able to find a house.

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They later moved to the Paul Adamson Mining Camp and continued to sell their food items around Tulsa. Latinization of Tulsa 51 Figure 6. El Rancho Grande restaurant is likely the oldest Mexican restaurant in Tulsa. Linda Cervantes said that, although her mother had no knowledge of how to manage a restaurant, she was resolute and figured out how to make her busi- ness successful as she went. Katie Ryan, who lives twenty-five miles west of Tulsa, used to go there often and remembered the excellent Tex-Mex and traditional Mexican dishes the restaurant served Ryan The bus usually left on Fridays from a Hispanic club in east Tulsa and delivered keepsakes and riders to locations over miles away in Mexico.

According to Hispano de Tulsa publisher Francisco Trevino, this was one of the reasons why University of Tulsa shirts and Tulsa Drillers hats were seen in various regions of Mexico in the s Gillham e. Latinization in Tulsa, however, was ongoing. Three major developments occurred during that clearly recognized it: a Tulsa World series dedicated to Latinos in Tulsa, the inception of the Greater Tulsa Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, and the opening of the Hispanic Re- source Center.

The April series in the Tulsa World documented several aspects of Hispanic life in Tulsa: the ongoing surge of Latino migration, local agencies that assist Latino residents, specific Latino families and businesses, illegal immigrants, and important churches. Photo by author, September His words per- fectly described what happened when a group of Latinos shared a set of easily modified semi-fixed elements and then created a distinct cultural landscape. In addition to the Spanish names, other characteristics of Lat- inization are also visible.

Some of the stores have Latino-influenced murals painted on their windows and walls; they also have business advertisements and schedules of buses that run to various south Texas and Mexican cities in the windows Figure 8. Across the street to the east , Supermercados More- los, a large Hispanic grocery store, opened. Painted bright yellow, the grocery store stands out and has a banner advertising the Salidas a Mexico bus service. In addition, a large flea market spans both the north and south sides of the street on Admiral in east Tulsa.

Since the mids, the once-Anglo stores have become Latino retail outlets. A good example of one of the newer small restaurants in east Tulsa with Latinized features is Papusas [sic] y Tienda, opened in by El Salvadoran Delmy Cruz, one of about El Salvadorans in Tulsa; pupusas are the nation- al dish of her country Cherry Her family members help her and the majority of her customers are Central Americans and Mexicans.

Murals are another vivid sign of Latinization. Generally, they dis- play a scene from a specific place relevant to the owner or they depict some type of historic event. Flags from El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala, and a wall hanging featuring a street scene in El Salvador are the main decorations Cherry Midtown has Las Americas, a large grocery store, similar to the one in east Tulsa, that purveys Hispanic-oriented food Figure 9.

In addition, many His- panic-operated auto body shops line the street in the old industrial area.

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Bright colors and multicolored place names painted on the facades mark these Latinos places. A few Latino car lots, like El Chanillo Motors, have also established in this area to meet the de- mands of the growing population. Francis Xavier Catholic Church. El Rancho Grande, with its decades-old recipes and glowing neon sign, attracts locals and tourists alike with its location on Route 66 and its propinquity to downtown. Las Americas is the principal grocery store for Hispanics in midtown Tulsa.

The parking lot is also often the business site for two taco trucks not shown here. Figure Taqueria mi Oficina is often parked adjacent to a remittance shop in east Tulsa. A taco trailer sits in the parking lot of Las Americas grocery in midtown. In July , Sarah Hart described the role of the taco trucks in her community for the Tulsa World: I live in east Tulsa, a culturally diverse part of our city, full of different sights and sounds than you would find at, say, Woodland Hills Mall. I drive past these… trucks… every day, trailer trucks with picnic tables out front. Spanish names.

People lined up three-deep for food, people sitting outside un- der picnic umbrellas, eating happily Hart The owner of Super Taqueria, who also owns the Tulsa restaurant El Refugio Azteca, told them he had been there four years. The Wal-Mart Supercenter in east Tulsa started carrying more Hispanic spices, foods, and other staples.